Sunday, October 9, 2016

Write-in voting rules for President for all 50 states

SUMMARY: STATE LAWS REGARDING PRESIDENTIAL BALLOT ACCESS FOR THE GENERAL ELECTION 


GreenPartyRadio.com has compiled a list of ballot requirements for Presidential candidates for all 50 states. The list was compiled by NASS.

This list also contains the numbers of each relevant state statute.

This should, once and for all, eliminate any and all questions about whether or not a person can write in Bernie Sanders for President in his or her state.

Only eight states will count the votes of people who write in the names of candidates who have not filed the necessary paperwork to appear as a write-in candidate:


  • Alabama
  • Iowa
  • New Hampshire
  • New Jersey
  • Oregon
  • Pennsylvania
  • Rhode Island
  • Vermont


In addition, Wyoming will count write-in votes if the candidate files paperwork within two days after the election.


Reviewed February 2016

This document provides a summary of the laws in each state relevant to the placement of a candidate for president on the general election ballot, and the requirements for a presidential candidate to run as a write-in candidate. Generally a presidential candidate nominated by a political party that meets certain criteria is placed on the general election ballot. This criteria is often based on a threshold number of votes cast at a recent election for a particular office or offices. A number of states provide an alternative mechanism for an organization to qualify in order to nominate candidates, for example by filing a petition or having a certain number of voters affiliated with the organization.

Additionally, all states have a procedure for independent candidates, and in some cases individual presidential candidates of a political organization, to obtain ballot access. Most states also permit a presidential candidate to be a write-in candidate, and many of these states require that the candidate file a notice prior to the election.

The summary for each state includes the timeframes for certifying the names of the candidates for president and vice-president and the names of the presidential electors; the requirements for a political party to be eligible to nominate a presidential candidate; the number of signatures required on a petition in order for a presidential candidate to obtain ballot access; a description of any additional ballot access methods where applicable; and the timeframes required for filing a notice in order to be a write-in candidate for president. It is important to note that the information in this document is based on a NASS review of relevant state ballot access requirements.

This document is intended to provide a general overview of these requirements. It is not intended as an interpretation of those laws, or as a procedure guide or manual for political parties or prospective candidates with regard to presidential ballot access. States have a variety of filings and other requirements pertaining to political parties, presidential candidates, presidential electors, and petitions. Additionally, ballot access laws may change at any time based on new state laws and/or court decisions. Candidates and political parties should contact the relevant state election office and/or legal counsel for information on the specific rules and requirements for each state. Additionally, where political parties nominate a candidate, the nomination process varies greatly based on the state, the legal status of each party, and the rules and procedures of each party. Individuals should contact the political parties for information on the party nomination process.

Alabama

Political Party Nomination

A presidential candidate nominated by a political party may be placed on the general election ballot. A political party must certify to the secretary of state no later than the 82nd day next preceding the day fixed for the election the names of the candidates for president and vice-president and the names of the presidential electors. A political party is an organization of electors which received more than 20% of the entire vote cast in the state at the last general election. An organization may also qualify as a political party by filing with the secretary of state on the date of the first primary election a petition containing the number of signatures equal to or exceeding 3% of electors who cast ballots for the office of governor in the last general election.

Petition

An independent candidate for president may obtain ballot access for the general election by filing with the secretary of state no later than September 6th a petition containing the signatures of at least 5,000 qualified electors. The petition must be accompanied by a list of presidential electors.

Write-In 

In all non-municipal elections a voter may write-in the name of any person not included on the ballot. (Alabama Code §§ 17-6-22, 17-6-27, 17-6-28, 17-6-29, 17-13-40, 17-13-50, 17-14-31).

Alaska 

Political Party Nomination

A presidential candidate nominated by a recognized political party may be placed on the general election ballot. A recognized political party must certify to the division of elections no later than the 48th day prior to the election the name of the candidates for president and vice-president. The political party must certify to the director of election no later than September 1st the names of the party’s nominees for presidential electors. A recognized political party is an organized group of voters whose candidate for governor in the last general election received at least 3% of the votes cast for that office, or whose number of registered voters is equal to at least 3% of the total votes cast for governor at the last general election. If the office of governor was not on the ballot at the preceding general election but the office of united states senator was, the 3% threshold applies to that office. If neither the office of governor nor the office of united states senator was on the ballot, the 3% threshold applies to the office of united states representative. A limited political party may be organized for the purpose of selecting candidates for presidential electors by filing with the director of elections at least 90 days before a presidential election a petition signed by a number of qualified voters equal to at least 1% of the number of votes cast for president at the last presidential election.

Independent Candidate Petition

An independent candidate for president may obtain ballot access for the general election by filing with the director of elections no later than the 90th day before a presidential election a petition containing the signature of qualified voters equal to at least 1% of the number of votes cast for president at the last general election. The candidates must certify to the director of elections no later than September 1st the name of the candidates for president and vice-president and the names of the presidential electors.

Write-In

A write in candidate for president must file a letter of intent with the director of elections at least 5 days before the general election. (Alaska Stat. §§ 15-25-105, 15.30.020, 15.30.025; 15.30.026; 15.80.010)

Arizona

Political Party Nomination

A presidential candidate nominated by a recognized political may be placed on the general election ballot. Each recognized political party must file with the secretary of state no less than 90 days before the primary election the names of the party’s nominees for presidential electors. A recognized political party is a political organization that received at least 5% of the total votes cast for governor or presidential electors at the last preceding general election, or a political organization entitled to continued representation by having registered voters equal to at least 2/3 of 1% of the total number of registered voters in the state. A political organization may also become eligible for recognition as a political party by filing with the secretary of state no less than 140 days before the primary election, or no less than 75 days prior to the presidential preference election, a petition containing the signatures of at least 1 and 1/3% of the total votes cast for governor at the last preceding general election. The petition must include signatures from electors in at least 5 different counties, and at least 10% of the signatures must be from electors in counties with populations less than 500,000. 

Petition

A presidential candidate who is not a member of a recognized political party may obtain ballot access for the general election by filing with the secretary of state no less than 60 days before the general election nomination papers and a petition containing the number of signatures equal to 3% of the registered voters in the state. The petition must include the names of the presidential electors. Each of the electors must also file nomination papers.

Write-In

A write-in candidate for president must file nomination papers with the secretary of state no later than the 40th day prior to the election. Each of the presidential electors must also file nomination papers. (Ariz. Rev. Stat. §§ 16-243, 16-244, 16-312, 16-341, 16-344, 16-801, 16-803,16-804)

Arkansas

Political Party Nomination

A presidential candidate nominated by a political party may be placed on the general election ballot. A political party must certify to the secretary of state no later than September 15th the names of the presidential electors. A political party is a group of voters whose candidate for governor or nominee for presidential electors at the last preceding general election received at least 3% of the entire vote cast for the office. A new political party may be formed by filing with the secretary of state no later than 45 days before the preferential primary election a petition containing the signatures of at least 10,000 registered voters in the state.

Petition

A presidential candidate of a political group may obtain ballot access for the general election by filing with the secretary of state no later than the first Monday of August a petition containing the names of 1,000 qualified electors. The group must file with the secretary of state no later than the 75th day before the election a certificate stating the name of the candidates for president and vice-president and must certify to the secretary of state no later than September 15th a list of presidential electors. An independent presidential candidate may obtain ballot access for the general election by filing with the secretary of state no later than the first Monday in August a petition containing the names of 1,000 qualified electors and certifying to the secretary of state no later than September 15th a list of the presidential electors. (Ark. Code Ann. §§ 7-1-101, 7-5-525, 7-7-205, 7-8-302).

California

Political Party Nomination

A presidential candidate nominated by a qualified political party may be placed on the general election ballot. A qualified political party generally must certify to the secretary of state no later than October 1st the names of the presidential electors. A qualified political party is a political party that received for any of its candidates for statewide office at the last preceding gubernatorial election at least 2% of the entire vote statewide. A group may also qualify as a political party if on or before the 135th day before any primary election a number of registered voters equal to at least 1% of the entire vote of the state at the last gubernatorial election are affiliated with the party; or, if it files with the secretary of state no later than 135 days prior to the primary election a petition signed by the number of voters equal to at least 10% of the entire vote of the state at the last gubernatorial election.

Petition

An independent presidential candidate may obtain ballot access for the general election by filing with county election officials no later than 88 days before the election a declaration of candidacy for each of the presidential electors and nomination papers signed by the number of voters equal to at least 1% of the entire number of registered voters in the state. The nomination papers must include the name of the presidential electors, and may include the name of the candidates for president and vice-president.

Write-In

A write-in candidate for president must have each of the presidential electors file a declaration of write-in candidacy with the secretary of state no later than 14 days before the election. (California Elections Code Ann. §§ 338, 5001, 5100, 6901, 7100, 7110, 7300, 7578, 7843, 8303, 8304, 8400, 8403(a)(2), 8451, 8550, 8650, 8651, 8652, 8653)

Colorado

Political Party Nomination A presidential candidate nominated by a major or minor political party may be placed on the general election ballot. Political parties must file with the secretary of state no later than 60 days before the general election a certificate of nomination for presidential electors. The name of the presidential candidate may be added to the certificate. A major political party is a political party that that was represented on the ballot at the last preceding gubernatorial election by a political party candidate or individual nominee who received at least 10% of the total gubernatorial votes cast. A minor political party is a political party that had a candidate for statewide office in either of the last two preceding general election receive at least 1% of the total votes cast for any statewide office, or has 1,000 or more registered electors affiliated with the party prior to July 1st in either of the last two preceding general elections. A political party may also qualify as a minor political party through any of the following methods:


  • the party had a candidate for statewide office in either of the last two preceding general elections receive at least five percent of the total votes cast for such office; 
  • one thousand or more registered electors are affiliated with the minor political party prior to July 1st of the election year for which the minor party seeks to nominate candidates; or 
  • the party files with the secretary of state no later than the second Friday of January a petition containing the signatures of 10,000 registered electors 


Petition

An unaffiliated presidential candidate may obtain ballot access for the general election by filing with the secretary of state no later than the 155th day before the election a petition containing the signatures of at least 5,000 eligible electors and a notice of acceptance of the nomination from the presidential candidate and each of the electors. Fee An unaffiliated presidential candidate may obtain ballot access for the general election by filing with the secretary of state no later than 155 days before the election a statement of intent and a $500 fee.

Write-In

A presidential write-in candidate must file with the secretary of state an affidavit of intent no later than the 110th day prior to the election. (Colo. Rev. Stat. §§ 1-1-104, 1-3-100.3, 1-4-302, 1-4-303, 1-4-502; 1-4-701, 1-4-802; 1-4-1101, 1-4-1102, 1-4-1302, 1-4-1303, 1-4-1304)

Connecticut

Political Party Nomination

A presidential candidate nominated by a major or minor political party may be placed on the general election ballot. Political parties must file with the secretary of state no later than the 14th day after the close of the state convention the names of the nominees for presidential electors. A minor political party must certify the names of nominees to the secretary of state no later than the 62nd day prior to the election. A major political party is a political party whose candidate for governor at the last preceding election for governor received at least 20% of the whole number of votes cast for all candidates for governor, or, whose enrolled membership is at least 20% of the total number of enrolled members of all political parties in the state. A minor political party is a political party whose candidate for the office in question received at the last preceding regular election at least 1% of the whole number of votes cast for all candidates for that office.

Petition

A presidential candidate who does not receive a nomination from a minor or major political party may obtain ballot access for the general election by filing with the secretary of state no later than the 90th day prior to the election a petition containing the number of signatures of qualified electors equal to the lesser of 1% of the votes cast for the office at the last election, or 7,500. The names of the presidential electors must be included on the petition. The names of the candidates for president and vice-president must be filed with the secretary of state at the time a petition form is requested.

Write-In

A presidential write-in candidate must register with the secretary of state and submit the names of the presidential electors no later than 4 o’clock pm of the 14th day preceding the election. (Conn. Gen. Stat. §§ 9-175, 9-372, 9-388, 9-452, 9-453b, 9-453d, 9-453i)

Delaware

Political Party Nomination

A presidential candidate nominated by a qualified political party may be placed on the general election ballot. Each eligible political party must file with the state election commissioner no later than September 1st a certificate of nomination that includes the name of the candidates for president and vice-president and the names of the presidential electors. If a party holds a national nominating convention, the certificate must be filed by the earlier of the Tuesday following the convention, or September 15th . A political party is a political organization which nominates candidates for presidential electors, or nominates candidates for offices do be decided at the general election. A political party is eligible for general election ballot access if 21 days prior to the primary election the number of registered voters in the name of the party is equal to at least 1 0/100 of 1% of the total number of voters registered in the state as of December 31st of the year immediately preceding the general election.

Petition

An unaffiliated presidential candidate may obtain ballot access for the general election by filing with the state election commissioner no later than September 1st a sworn declaration of non-affiliation and a nominating petition signed by at least 1% of the total number of registered voters as of December 31st of the year immediately preceding the general election.

Write-In

A write-in candidate for president must file a write-in candidate declaration with the state election commissioner no later than September 30th. (Del. Code Ann. tit. 15, §§ 101, 3001, 3002, 3301, 3303, 3402 )

District of Columbia Information not available.

Florida

Political Party Nomination

A presidential candidate nominated by a political party may be placed on the general election ballot. The governor must nominate the presidential electors for each political party and certify the names of the electors to the department of state no later than September 1st. A minor political party affiliated with a national party holding a nominating convention must certify to the department of state no later than September 1st the names of the candidates for president and vice-president and the names of the presidential electors. A minor political party is any group which on January 1st preceding a primary election does not have registered as members 5% of the total registered electors of the state.

Petition 

An unaffiliated presidential candidate, and a presidential candidate of a minor political party that is not affiliated with a national party holding a nominating convention, may obtain ballot access for the general election by filing with the department of state no later than July 15th a petition signed by 1% of the registered electors of the state. The party or candidate must file with the department of state no later than September 1st the names of the presidential electors.

Write-In 

A write-in candidate for president must file an oath with the department of state and must certify the names of the presidential electors no later than the 49th day prior to the primary election in the presidential election year. (Fla. Stat. §§ 97.021, 103.021, 103.022)

Georgia 

Political Party Nomination

A presidential candidate nominated by a political party or a political body may be placed on the general election ballot. Political bodies that nominate presidential electors by convention must hold the convention at least 150 days prior to the general election, or, in years following the release of a decennial census, 120 days before the election. A political party is a political organization that nominated a candidate for governor at the last general election and the candidate received at least 20% of the votes cast in the state for that office; or nominated a candidate for president at the last presidential election and the candidate received at least 20% of the vote cast for that office. A political body is any political organization other than a political party. A political body is eligible to nominate candidates for the general election by convention if the political body nominated a candidate for statewide office at the preceding general election and the candidate received the number of votes equal to at least 1% of the total number of registered voters for that election; or, if the political body files with the secretary of state no later than the second Tuesday in July a petition signed by the number of voters equal to 1% of the registered voters in the preceding general election. In a general election year following the release of a decennial census, the petition must be filed no later than the first Monday in August. A presidential candidate nominated by a political body must file a notice of candidacy no later than the Friday following the fourth Monday in June. In a general election year following the release of a decennial census, the notice of candidacy must be filed no later than the Friday following the last Monday in July.

Petition 

An independent presidential candidate, or a presidential candidate of a political body, presidential candidate may obtain ballot access for the general election by submitting to the secretary of state no later than no later than the second Tuesday in July a nominating petition signed by the number of voters equal to 1 percent of the total number of registered voters eligible to vote in the last presidential election. In a general election year following the release of a decennial census, the petition must be filed no later than the first Monday in August. The candidate must file with the secretary of state no later than the Friday following the fourth Monday in June a notice of candidacy and a qualifying fee equal to 3% of the annual fee of the office. In a general election year following the release of a decennial census, the notice of candidacy and qualifying fee must be filed no later than the Friday following the last Monday in July.

Write-In 

A write-in candidate must file intention of write-in candidacy with the secretary of state no later than the Tuesday after the first Monday in September prior to the election and must publish notice of the candidacy in a newspaper of general circulation. (Ga. Code Ann. §§ 21-2-2, 21-2-130, 21-2-131, 21-2-132, 21-2-133, 21-2-170, 21-2-172, 21-2-180, 21-2-185, 202-187, 21-2-285)

Hawaii

Political Party Nomination A presidential candidate nominated by a qualified political party may be placed on the general election ballot. Qualified political parties must file with the chief election officer no later than the 60th day prior to the election a certification of the party’s nominees for electors, and a sworn application that includes the name of the party’s candidates for president and vice-president and a statement that the candidate is the chosen candidate of both the state and national party. A national party is one that is admitted to the ballot in at least one state other than Hawaii or one which is determined by the chief election officer to be making a bona fide effort to become a national party. If there is no national party or the national and state parties do not agree on the presidential candidate, the chief election officer may determine which candidate’s name shall be placed on the ballot or may leave the candidate’s name off the ballot. A qualified political party is an association of voters which had candidates running for election at the last general election for any of the statewide offices whose terms had expired, and the party received: - at least 10% of all votes cast for any statewide office or in at least 50% of the congressional districts, or; - at least 4% of the votes cast for all the offices of state senator statewide, or; - at least 4% of the votes cast for all the office of state representative statewide, or; - at least 2% of the votes cast for all the offices of state senate and all the offices of state representative combined statewide A group of persons may qualify as a political party by filing with the chief state election officer no later than the 170th day before the next primary election a petition containing the signatures of at least 1/10 of 1% of the total registered voters in the state as of the last preceding election.

Petition 

An individual presidential candidate or the presidential candidate of a party our group that is not a qualified political party may obtain ballot access for the general election by filing with the chief election officer no later than the 90th day prior to the general election a petition containing the signatures of at least 1% of the number of votes cast in the state at the last presidential election. (H.R.S. §§ 11-61b, 11-62, 11-113, 14-21)

Idaho 

Political Party Nomination A presidential candidate nominated by a political party may be placed on the general election ballot. Each political party must certify to the secretary of state no later than September 1st the names of the candidates for president and vice-president and the names of the presidential electors, unless a 5 day extension is granted by the secretary of state. A political party is an organization of electors that had 3 or more candidates for state or national office listed under the party name at the last general election, or had a candidate for state or national office at the last general election receive at least 3% of the aggregate vote cast for governor or presidential electors. An affiliation of new electors may form a new political party by filing with the secretary of state no later than August 30th in even numbered years a petition containing the signatures of qualified electors equal to at least 2% of the aggregate vote cast for presidential electors in the state at the previous general election at the last presidential election.

Petition 

An independent presidential candidate may obtain ballot access for the general election by filing with the secretary of state no later than August 25th prior to the election a petition signed by 1,000 qualified electors. The candidate must file with the secretary of state no later than September 1st the names of the presidential electors.

Write-In

A write-in candidate for president must file a declaration of intent with the secretary of state no later than 28 days before the election. (Idaho Code §§ 34-501, 34-702, 34-708A , 34-711; 34-711A)

Illinois 

Political Party Nomination

A presidential candidate nominated by an established political party may be placed on the general election ballot. Each established political party must certify to the state board of election within 2 days of the state nominating convention the names of the party’s nominees for presidential electors. An established political party is a political party whose candidate for governor at the last general election for state and county offices received more than 5% of the entire vote cast for governor. A political party that received more than 5% of the entire vote cast in the state at the general election next preceding a primary is also an established political party.

Petition 

An independent presidential candidate, or a presidential candidate of a new political party, may obtain ballot access for the general election by filing with the state board of elections no less than 134 prior to the election a petition signed by 1% of the number of voters who voted at the next preceding statewide general election or 25,000 qualified voters, whichever is less. The petition must include the names of the presidential electors.

Write-In 

A write-in candidate for president must file a declaration of intent with the each county clerk and board of commissioners in the state no later than 61 days prior to the election. (10 Ill. Comp. Stat. §§5/7/2, 5/7-9, 5/10-2, 5/10-3, 5/10-6, 5/17-16.1, 5/18-9.1)

Indiana

Political Party Nomination

A presidential candidate nominated by a major political party or other qualified political party may be placed on the general election ballot. Political parties must certify to the elections division no later than the second Tuesday in September the names of the nominees for president and vice-president and the names of the nominees for presidential electors. A major political party refers to either of the two political parties whose nominee for secretary of state in the last election received the highest and second highest number of votes statewide for that office. A political party also qualifies to nominate candidate for presidential electors if its nominee for secretary of state at the last election received at least 2% of the total votes cast for that office.

Petition 

An independent presidential candidate or a presidential candidate of a minor political party not qualified to nominate by convention may obtain ballot access for the general election by filing with the elections division no later than July 15 a written consent form and a petition containing the signatures of registered voters equal to 2% of the votes cast at the last election for secretary of state. The name of the candidates for president and vice-president and the names of presidential electors must be filed with the secretary of state no later than the second Tuesday in September.

Write-In 

A write-in candidate for president must file a declaration of intent with the division of elections no later than July 3rd prior to the election. (Ind. Code §§ 3-5-2-26.6, 3-5-2-30, 3-8-2-2.5, 3-8-2-4, 3-8-2-5, 3-8-4-1, 3-8-4-2, 3-8-4-10, 3-8-6-10, 3-8-6-12, 3-10-4-1, 3-10-4-5)

Iowa 

Political Party Nomination

A presidential candidate nominated by a political party may be placed on the general election ballot. Political parties must certify to the secretary of state no later than the 81st day before the election the names of the candidate for president and vice-president and the names of the presidential electors. If the national nominating convention of a political party adjourns later than 89 days before the general election the names of the candidates for president and vice-president must be certified within 5 days after adjournment. As an alternative to certification by the state central committee of the political party, the certificate of nomination issued by the political party’s national nominating convention may be used to certify the name of the party’s candidates for president and vice-president. A political party is a party whose candidate for president at the last presidential election, or candidate for governor at the last gubernatorial election, received at least 2% of the total vote cast for all candidate for that office at that election. A political organization that is not a political party may hold a convention or caucus to nominate a presidential candidate if a minimum of 250 eligible electors attend, including at least one from each county. The organization must certify to the secretary of state no later than the 81st day before the election the name of the candidates for president and vice-president, the names of the presidential electors, and the names of the delegates in attendance at the convention or caucus.

Petition

An independent presidential candidate, or a presidential candidate of a political organization that does not hold a nominating caucus or convention, may obtain ballot access for the general election by filing with the secretary of state no later than the 81st day before the election an affidavit of candidacy and a petition signed by at least 1500 eligible electors residing in at least 10 counties of the state. The filing must include the names of the presidential electors.

Write-In 

A voter may write-in the name of a candidate. (Iowa Code §§ 44.1, 44.2, 43.2, 44.4, 44.17, 45.1 ,45.4, 49.99, 54.5)

Kansas 

Political Party Nomination 

A presidential candidate nominated by a recognized political party may be placed on the general election ballot. Recognized political parties must certify to the secretary of state the names of the presidential electors. The certification may also include the names of the candidates for president and vice-president. A recognized political party is a political party which nominates a person for at least one statewide office at any general election, and whose nominee for any statewide office receives at least 1% of the votes cast for the office at the election. A political party may obtain official recognition by filing with the secretary of state no later than June 1st prior to the primary election a petition containing the signatures of at least 2% of the total votes cast for all candidates for the office of governor in the state in the last preceding general election.

Petition 

An independent presidential candidate may obtain ballot access for the general election by filing with the secretary of state no later than the Monday preceding the primary election a petition signed by at least 5,000 qualified voters. The petition must include the name of the candidates for president and vice-president and the names of the presidential electors. The candidate must file with the secretary of state an affidavit of candidacy no later than the 2nd Monday preceding the general election.

Write-In

A write-in candidate for president must file an affidavit of intent with the secretary of state no later than the second Monday preceding the election. (Kan. Stat. Ann. §§ 25-202, 25-301, 25-302a, 302b, 25-303, 25-304, 25-305, 25-305b, 25-804)

Kentucky 

Political Party Nomination

A presidential candidate nominated by a political party or political organization may be placed on the general election ballot. Each political party or political organization must certify to the secretary of state no later than the Friday following the first Tuesday in September the name of the presidential candidate and the names of the presidential electors. A political party is an organization of electors whose candidate received at least 20% of the total vote cast at the last preceding election for presidential electors. A political organization is a group not constituting a political party whose candidate received 2% or more of the vote at the last preceding election for presidential electors. 

Petition

An independent presidential candidate, a political group presidential candidate, and a presidential candidate of a political organization not entitled to nominate by convention, may obtain ballot access for the general election by filing with the secretary of state no later than the Friday following the first Tuesday in September a nominating petition signed by at least 5,000 registered voters. The petition must include the names of the presidential electors.

Write-In 

A write-in candidate for president must file a declaration of intent and a list a presidential electors with the secretary of state no later than the fourth Friday in October preceding the election. (Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. §§ 117.265, 118.015, 118.305, 118.315, 118.325, 118.365)

Louisiana 

Political Party Nomination

A presidential candidate nominated by a recognized political party may be placed on the general election ballot. Each recognized political party must file with the secretary of state the names of the presidential electors. If the nominees for president and vice-president and the names of the presidential electors are not certified to the secretary of state by the state central committee of the political party no later than the first Tuesday in September, the national chairman of the party must certify the names of the presidential electors to the secretary of state no later than the first Friday following the first Tuesday in September. A political party may qualify as a recognized political party if at least 1,000 registered voters are registered as affiliated with the party ninety days prior to the opening of the qualifying period; or, if any candidate of the party for presidential elector at the last presidential election received at least 5% of the votes cast or any candidate of the party for any statewide office in any primary or general election received at least 5% of the votes cast for the office.

Petition 

An independent presidential candidate may obtain ballot access for the general election by filing with the secretary of state no later than the first Friday following the first Tuesday in September a notice of candidacy, affidavit of each elector, and a petition containing at least 5,000 signatures of registered voters, at least 500 of which must be obtained in each of the congressional districts. The petition must include the name of the presidential candidate and the names of the presidential electors.

Fee 

An independent presidential candidate may obtain ballot access for the general election by paying a $500 fee and filing notice of the presidential electors. (Louisiana Rev. Statutes §§18-441, 18:464(A), 18-465, 18-1253, 18-1254, 18-1255)

Maine 

Political Party Nomination

A presidential candidates nominated by a qualified political party may be placed on the general election ballot. Each qualified political party nominates presidential electors. A qualified political party is a party that was listed on the ballot at either of the 2 preceding general elections and had at least 10,000 voters enrolled in the party voted in the last general election. A political party may also qualify it had a candidate for governor or for president in the last preceding general election who was nominated by petition receive 5% or more of the total vote cast in the state for governor or for president, or; 10 or more voters not enrolled in a qualified political party file with the secretary of state on the 180th day before the primary election a petition containing the signatures of voters equal in number to at least 5% of the total vote cast in the state for governor at the last preceding gubernatorial election.

Petition 

A presidential candidate that is not nominated by a political party may obtain ballot access for the general election by filing with the secretary of state no later than August 15th a petition signed by at least 4,000 and not more than 6,000 voters. The petition must include the names of the candidates for president and vice-president and the names of the presidential electors.

Write-In 

A write-in candidate for president must file a declaration of write-in candidacy with the secretary of state no later than the 45th day prior to the election. (21-A Me. Rev. Stat. Ann. §§ 301, 302, 303, 321, 351, 354)

Maryland

Political Party Nomination

A presidential candidate nominated by a qualified political party may be placed on the general election ballot. Qualified political parties must certify to the state board of elections no later than September 6th the names of the candidates for president and vice-president and must certify the state board of election no later than 30 days before the general election the names of the presidential electors. A qualified political party is a political party that has nominated a candidate for the highest office on the ballot in a statewide general election and the candidate received at least 1% of the total vote for that office, or; if state voter registration totals as of December 31st show that at least 1% of the state’s registered voters are affiliated with the political party. A group of voters may form a new qualified political party by filing with the state board of election no later than the first Monday in August containing the signatures of at least 10,000 registered voters.

Petition

A presidential candidate that is not affiliated with a political party may obtain ballot access by submitting a petition with the state board of election no later than the first Monday in August a certificate of candidacy and a petition containing the signatures of at least 1% of the registers voters of the state. The candidate must certify to the state board of election no later than 30 days before the election the names of the presidential electors.

Write-In 

A write-in candidate for president must file a certificate of candidacy with the state board of elections no later than the Wednesday before the election. (Md. Ann. Code Art. 33, §§ 1-101, 4-102, 4-103, 5-301, 5-303, 5-701, 7-503, 5-704, 8-503)

Massachusetts

Political Party Nomination A presidential candidate nominated by a political party may be placed on the general election ballot. Each political party must certify to the secretary of state no later than the second Tuesday of September the names of the candidates for president and vice-president and the names of the presidential electors. A political party is any party whose candidate for any statewide office at the last general election received at least 3% of the vote cast for that office, or, a party with a number of enrolled voters equal to or greater than 1% of the entire voters registered in the state.

Petition A presidential candidate not running as the candidate of a political party may obtain ballot access by submitting to the secretary of state no later than the second Tuesday of September nomination papers containing the signatures of at least 10,000 voters. The nomination papers must include the names of the candidates for president and vice-president and the names of the presidential electors.

Write-In 

A write-in candidate for president must file the name of the candidate for president and the names of the candidates for presidential electors with the secretary of state no later than 60 days prior to the election. (Mass. Gen. Laws §§ 50-1, 53-1, 53-6, 53-8, 53-10, 54-78A)

Michigan 

Political Party Nomination

A presidential candidate nominated by a political party that qualifies for general election ballot access may be placed on the general election ballot. Each political party must certify to the secretary of state no later than 1 business day after the conclusion of the state convention the names of the candidates for presidential electors. Each political party must certify to the secretary of state not more than 1 business day after the state or national convention of the party, whichever is later, the names of the candidates for president and vicepresident. A political party qualifies for ballot access at the general election if any of the party’s candidates at the last preceding general election received at least 1% of the total number of votes cast for the successful candidate for the office of secretary of state at the last preceding general election in which a secretary of state was elected. A group may form a new political party by filing with the secretary of state no later than the 100th day before the general election a petition containing the signatures of registered and qualified electors equal to not less than 1% of the total number of votes cast for all candidates for governor at the last election in which a governor was elected. The petition must be signed by at least 100 registered electors in each of at least 1/2 of the congressional districts of the state.

Petition 

A presidential candidate not affiliated with a political party may obtain ballot access for the general election by filing with the secretary of state no later than the 110th day before the election a petition signed by a number of qualified and registered electors of the state equal to not less than 1% of the total number of votes cast for all candidates for governor at the last election in which a governor was elected. [note: see Michigan Secretary of State Ballot Access Information for Presidential Candidates which states that the number of valid signatures required is 30,000]. The petition must be signed by at least 100 registered electors in each of at least 1/2 of the congressional districts of the state. The candidate must certify to the secretary of state no later than 66 days before the election the names of the presidential electors.

Write-In 

A write-in candidate for president must file a declaration of intent with the secretary of state no later than the second Friday immediately preceding the election. ( Mich. Comp. Laws §§ 168.16, 168.42, 168.532, 168.544f , 168.560a, 168.590b, 168.590c, 168.590d, 168.591, 168.685, 168.686, 168.686a, 168.737a)

Minnesota 

Political Party Nomination 

A presidential candidate nominated by a major political party may be placed on the general election ballot. Each major political party must certify to the secretary of state the names of the presidential electors and the names of the candidates for president and vice-president at least 71 days before the general election. To qualify as a major political party, a political party must meet one of the following requirements: - present at least one candidate for constitutional office at the last general election for these offices, or presidential elector or U.S. senator at the last presidential election, who received votes in each county, and received at least 5% of the total votes in that election; or - present at least 45 candidates for state representative, 23 candidates for state senator, 4 candidates for representative in Congress, and 1 candidate for each constitutional office, at the last general election for these offices; or - file a nominating petition with the secretary of state prior to the close of filing for the state primary containing the signatures of party members that equal at least 5% of the total votes at the last state general election.

Petition

A presidential candidate of a minor political party or other party, and independent presidential candidates, may obtain ballot access by filing with the secretary of state no later than 77 days before the general election a petition containing the signatures of at least 2,000 eligible voters. The petition must include the names of the presidential electors. A minor political party is a party that presented at least one candidate for constitutional office at the last general election for these offices, or presidential elector or U.S. senator at the last presidential election, who received votes in each county in the aggregate equal to at least 1% of the total number of individuals who voted in the election; or, the party filed with the secretary of state no later than the close of filing for the state primary a nominating petition containing the signatures of party members equal in number to at least 1% of the total number of individuals who voted in the preceding general election.

Write-In 

A write-in candidate for president must file a written request to have their write-in votes tallied and the names of the presidential electors with the secretary of state no later than the 7th day before the election. (Minn. Stat. §§ 200.02, 204B.07, 204B.08, 204B.09, 208.03)

Mississippi 

Political Party Nomination

A presidential candidate nominated by an organized political party may be placed on the general election ballot. Each political party must certify the names of the presidential electors to the secretary of state no less than 60 days prior to the election.

Petition

An independent presidential candidate may obtain ballot access by filing with the secretary of state no less than 60 days before the election a petition containing the signatures of 1,000 qualified electors. The petition must be accompanied by the names of the individual who will serve as presidential electors.

Write-In 

A write-in vote will be counted in the event of the death, resignation, withdrawal, or removal of any candidate whose name was printed on the official ballot (Miss. Code. Ann. §§ 23-15-365, 23-15-539, 23-15-781, 23-15-785, 23-15-1063)

Missouri 

Political Party Nomination 

A presidential candidate nominated by an established political party may be placed on the general election ballot. Each established political party must certify the names of its nominees for president and vice-president to the secretary of state no later than the 12th Tuesday prior to the election, or within 7 working days after choosing its nominee for president, whichever is later. Each established political party must certify to the secretary of state no later than the 3rd Tuesday prior to the election, the names of its nominees for presidential elector. To qualify as an established political party, a political party’s candidate for statewide office at either of the last two general elections must have received more than 2% of the entire vote cast for the office. A group may form a new political party and nominate a presidential candidate to be placed on the general election ballot if the group files with the secretary of state no later than the 15th Monday immediately preceding the general election a petition containing the signatures of at least 10,000 registered voters. The petition must include the names of the nominees for presidential electors and the name of the presidential candidate.

Petition 

An independent presidential candidate may obtain ballot access for the general election by filing with the secretary of state no later than the 15th Monday immediately preceding the general election a declaration of candidacy and petition containing the signatures of at least 10,000 registered voters. The petition must include the names of the presidential electors and the names of the candidates for president and vice-president.

Write-In 

A write-in candidate for president must submit a declaration of intent and the names of the nominees for presidential electors with the secretary of state no later than the second Friday immediately preceding the election. (Mo. Rev. Stat. §§ 115.013,, 115.315, 115.317, 115.321, 115.329, 115.399, 115-453)

Montana 

Political Party Nomination

A presidential candidate nominated by a qualified political party may be placed on the general election ballot. Each qualified political party must certify to the secretary of state file by the date prescribed by the secretary of state the names of the nominees for presidential electors A political party is qualified if it had a candidate for a statewide office in either of the last two general elections receive 5% or more of the total votes cast for the most recent successful candidate for governor. A political party may also qualify by filing with the secretary of state no later than 85 days before the date of the primary a petition containing the number of signatures of registered voters equal to 5% or more of the votes cast for the successful candidate for governor at the last general election, or 5,000 electors, whichever is less. The number must include the registered voters in more than 1/3 of the legislative districts equal to 5% or more of the total votes cast for the successful candidate for governor at the last general election in those districts or 150 electors in those districts, whichever is less.

Petition

An independent presidential candidate or a presidential candidate of a political party that does not qualify may obtain ballot access for the general election by filing with the secretary of state 76 days prior to the general election a petition containing the signatures of electors equal to 5% or more of the total votes cast for the successful candidate for governor at the last general election, or 5,000 electors, whichever is less. The names of the candidates for presidential electors must be certified to the secretary of state no later than 76 days before the election

Write-In 

A presidential write-in candidate for president must submit a declaration of intent with the secretary of state no later than the 10th day before absentee ballots must be made available (Mont. Code. Ann. §§ 13-10-504, 13-10-601, 13-25-101, 13-10-211)

Nebraska 

Political Party Nomination 

A presidential candidate nominated by a political party that meets state requirements for partisan ballot access may be placed on the general election ballot. The officers of the various national political party conventions must certify to the secretary of state no later than September 8th the names of the candidates for president and vice-president. Each political party must hold a state convention no later than September 1st to select presidential electors and must certify the names of the electors to the secretary of state. A political party meets state requirements for partisan ballot access if a candidate nominated by the political party at one of the two immediately preceding statewide general elections received at least 5% of the vote in a statewide race, or if a combination of candidates nominated by the political party for a combination of districts that encompass all of the voters of the entire state polled at least 5% of the vote in each of their respective districts.

Petition 

Presidential candidates of a newly formed political party, and nonpartisan presidential candidates, may obtain ballot access for the general election by filing with the secretary of state no later than September 1st a petition containing the signatures of at least 2500 registered voters who did not vote in the primary election of any political party that held a presidential preference primary election. The petition must include the names of the candidates for president and vice-president and the names of the presidential electors. A group may form a new political party by filing with the secretary of state no later than August 1st a petition containing signatures equal to at least 1% of the total votes cast for governor at the most recent general election for that office. The petition signatures must be distributed to include registered voters totaling at least 1% of the votes cast in the most recent gubernatorial election in each of the 3 congressional districts in the state.

Write-In

A write-in candidate for president must file an affidavit of intent and the required filing fee with the secretary of state no later than 10 days prior to the election. (Neb. Rev. Stat. §§ 32-610, 32-615, 32-617, 32-620, 32-621, 32-710, 32-712, 32-716, 32-813)

Nevada 

Political Party Nomination

A presidential candidate nominated by a qualified major or minor political party may be placed on the general election ballot. Each major and minor party must certify the names of the presidential electors to the secretary of state. A minor party must certify to the secretary of state no later than the first Tuesday in September the names of the candidates for president and vice-president. To qualify as a major political party: - the party must be designated as a political party on the voter registration applications of at least 10% of the registered voters in the state on January 1st preceding any primary election, or; - the party must file a petition with the secretary of state no later than the last Friday in February before any primary election containing the signatures of registered voters equal to or more than 10% of the total number of votes cast at the last preceding general election for the office of representative in congress. To qualify as a minor political party: - any of the party’s candidates for partisan office at the last general election must have received at least 1% of the total number of the total votes cast for the office of representative in congress; - on January 1st preceding a primary election, the party must have been designated as the political party on the voter registration applications of at least 1% of the total number of registered voters in the state; or - the party must file a petition with the secretary of state no later than the 3rd Friday in May preceding the general election containing the signatures of registered voters equal to at least 1% of the total number of votes cast at the last preceding general election for the office of representative in congress

Petition 

An independent presidential candidate may obtain ballot access for the general election by filing with the secretary of state no later than the second Friday in August a declaration of candidacy, a filing fee of $250, and a petition containing the signatures of registered voters equal to at least 1% of the total number of votes cast at the last preceding general election for the office of representative in congress. The candidate must also file with the secretary of state the names of the individuals who will serve as presidential electors. (Nev. Rev. Stat. §§ 293.128, 293.270, 293.1715, 293.1725, 298.020, 298.109)

New Hampshire 

Political Party Nomination

A presidential candidate nominated by a political party may be placed on the general election ballot. Each political party must certify to the secretary of state no later than the last Tuesday of October the names of the presidential electors. A political party is any political organization which received at least 4% of the total number of votes cast for governor or United States senators at the preceding state general election. A political organization may also nominate a presidential candidate for the general election by filing with the secretary of state no later than the Wednesday one week before the primary nomination papers containing the signatures of registered voters equal to 3% of the votes cast at the previous state general election. The name of the candidate and a declaration of candidacy must be submitted to the secretary of state no later than the day of the primary.

Petition 

A presidential candidate may obtain ballot access for the general election by filing a declaration of intent between the first Wednesday in June and the Friday of the following week, and submitting to the secretary of state no later than the Wednesday one week before the primary nomination papers containing the signatures of 3,000 registered voters, 1,500 from each United States congressional district in the state. The candidate must also pay a fee of $250.

Write-In 

A voter may write-in the name of a candidate on the ballot. (N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. §§ 652:11, 655:40a, 655:40b, 655:42, 655:43, 655:53, 655:54, 659:17, 667:21)

New Jersey 

Political Party Nomination

A presidential candidate nominated by a political party may be placed on the general election ballot. Political parties must certify the names of the presidential electors to the secretary of state within 1 week after the electors are nominated at a state convention which must be held within 1 week following the closing of the party’s national convention. The certificate may include the names of the candidates for president and vice-president. A political party is a party which, at the election held for all of the members of the general assembly next preceding the holding of any primary election, polled for members of the general assembly at least 10% of the total vote cast in the state.

Petition

A presidential candidate who is not nominated by a political party, and independent presidential candidate, may obtain ballot access for the general election by filing a petition with the secretary of state no later than the 99th day before the general election a petition containing the signatures of 800 legally qualified voters of the state. The names of the presidential electors may be included in the petition.

Write-In

A voter may write-in the name of a candidate. (N.J. Stat. Ann. §§19:1-1, 19:5-1, 19:13-2, 19:13-1, 19:13-3, 19:13-4, 19:13-5, 19:13-9, 19:13-15, 19:53A5)

New Mexico

Political Party Nomination 

A presidential candidate nominated by a qualified political party may be placed on the general election ballot. A qualified political party must certify the names of the presidential electors to the secretary of state no less than 56 days prior to the election. A qualified political party is a political party that has a candidate on the ballot in at least one of the two previous general elections, or if the party has a candidate for governor or president in a general election, the candidate receives at least 1% of the total votes cast for the office. A political party may qualify as a political party by filing with the secretary of state petition containing the signatures of at least ½ of 1% of the total votes cast for the office of governor at the preceding general election..

Petition 

An independent presidential candidate may obtain ballot access for the general election by filing with the secretary of state on the 21st day following the primary election a declaration of candidacy and a nominating petition containing the number of voter signatures equal to at least 3% of the total vote cast for governor at the last preceding general election for that office. The petition must include the names of the presidential electors.

Write-In 

A write-in candidate must file a declaration of intent with the secretary of state no later than the 21st day after the primary election. (N.M. Stat. Ann. §§ 1-1-10, 1-7-2, 1-8-1, 1-8-49, 1-8-51, 1-8-52, § 1-12-19.1, 1-15-3)

New York

Political Party Nomination 

A presidential candidate nominated by a political party may be placed on the general election ballot. Political parties must certify to the state board of elections no later than 14 days after the fall primary election the names of the nominees for presidential electors. A political party is any political organization whose candidate for governor at the last preceding election for that office received at least 50,000 votes.

Petition 

An independent presidential candidate may obtain ballot access for the general election by filing with the state board of elections no later than 11 weeks prior to the election a petition containing 15,000 signatures, with at least 100 signatures coming from each of ½ of the congressional districts in the state. The petition must include the names of the presidential electors. The candidate must file an acknowledgment of acceptance of the nomination no later than the 3rd day after the last day to file the petition.

Write-In 

A write-in candidate for president must file a certificate of candidacy and a list of presidential electors with the state board of elections no later than the third Tuesday before the general election (N.Y. Election Law §§ 1-104, 6-102, 6-142, 6-146, 6-153, 6-158)

North Carolina

Political Party Nomination

A presidential candidate nominated by a political party may be placed on the general election ballot. Political parties must certify the names of the presidential electors with the secretary of state. A political party is any group whose candidate for governor or presidential electors at the last preceding general election received at least 2% of the entire vote cast in the state for governor or presidential electors. A group may form a new political party by filing with the state board of election no later than the 1st day of June preceding the general election a petition containing the number of signatures of registered voters equal to 2% of the total number of voters who voted in the most recent general election for governor. The petition must be signed by at least 200 registered voters from each of the 4 congressional districts in the state.

Petition

An unaffiliated presidential candidate may obtain ballot access for the general election by filing with the state board of elections no later than the last Friday in June preceding the general election a petition containing the number signatures of registered voters equal to 2% of the total number of voters who voted in the most recent general election for governor. The petition must be signed by at least 200 registered voters from each of the 4 congressional districts in the state. The candidate must certify to the secretary of state no later than the first Friday in August the name of the candidate for vice-president and the names of the presidential electors.

Write-In

A write-in candidate for president must file with the state board of election no later than 90 days before the election a declaration of intent and a petition containing the signatures of 500 qualified voters. (N.C. Gen. Stat. §§ 163-1, 163-96, 163-122, 163-123, 163-209, 163-213)

North Dakota 

Political Party Nomination 

A presidential candidate nominated by an established political party may be placed on the general election ballot. Established political parties must certify to the secretary of state no later than the 60th day before the election the names of the presidential electors and the names of the candidates for president and vice-president. An established political party is a political organization that had candidates for presidential electors, a candidate for governor, a candidate for attorney general, or a candidate for secretary of state on the last general election ballot and the candidates received at least 5% of the total vote cast for the office.

Petition

A presidential candidate of a party that is not established, or an independent presidential candidate, may obtain ballot access for the general election by filing with the secretary of state no later than the 60th day before the general election an affidavit of candidacy, a statement of interests, and a petition containing the signatures of 4,000 qualified electors. The names of the presidential electors must be filed with the petition.

Write-In 

A write-in candidate for president must file a certificate of write-in candidacy and the names of the presidential electors with the secretary of state no later than the 21st day before the election (N.D. Cent. Code §§ 16.1-03-14, 16.1-03-19, 16.1-06-07.1, 16.1-12-02, 16.1-12-02.2)

Ohio

Political Party Nomination

A presidential candidate nominated by a political party may be placed on the general election ballot. Major political parties must certify to the secretary of state on or before the 90th day before the election names of the candidates for president and vice-president. Major parties must nominate presidential electors no later than 40 days prior to the general election and must certify the names of the electors to the secretary of state within 5 days. Minor parties must certify to the secretary of state on or before the 90th day before the election the names of the candidates for president and vice-president and the names of the presidential electors. A political party is any party whose candidate for governor or nominees for presidential electors at the most recent general election received at least 5% of the entire vote cast for that office. A group may also obtain political party status by petition (Ohio Secretary of State Directive 2007-09).

Petition

An independent presidential candidate may obtain ballot access for the general election by filing with the secretary of state no later than the 90th day before the general election a petition containing the signatures of at least 5,000 qualified electors. The candidate must file a statement of candidacy and the names of presidential electors with the petition.

Write-In 

A write-in candidate for president must file a declaration of intent and a list of presidential electors with the secretary of state no later than the 72nd day before the election. (Ohio Rev. Code Ann. §§ 3505.10, 3513.11, 3513.041, 3513.257, 3517.01)

Oklahoma

Political Party Nomination

A presidential candidate nominated by a recognized political party may be placed on the general election ballot. Each recognized political party must certify to the state board of elections no fewer than 90 days from the date of the general election the names of the nominees for presidential electors. A recognized political party is a political party whose nominee for governor or nominees for presidential electors received at least 10% of the total votes cast for the office in any general election. A group may form a recognized political party by file with the state elections board any time except between March 1st and November 15th of an even numbered year a petition containing the signature of registered voters equal to at least 5% of the total votes cast in the last general election for governor or for presidential electors.

Petition 

Uncommitted candidates for presidential electors may obtain ballot access for the general election by filing a petition with the state elections board no later than July 15th of a presidential election year containing the signatures of registered voters equal to at least 3% of the total votes cast in the last general election for president. An independent presidential candidate, or a presidential candidate nominated by an unrecognized political party, may obtain ballot access for the general election by filing with the state elections board no later than July 15th of a presidential election year a petition containing the signatures of registered voters equal to at least 3% of the total votes cast in the last general election for president. The candidate must certify to the state board of elections no later than September 1st the name of the candidate for vice-president and the names of the presidential electors. (Oklahoma Statutes §§ 26-1-108, 26-1-109, 26-10-101, 26-10-101.1, 26-10-101.2)

Oregon 

Political Party Nomination

A presidential candidate nominated by a major or minor political party may be placed on the general election ballot. Political parties must certify to the secretary of state no later than the 70th day before the election the names of the candidates for president and vice-president and the names of the presidential electors. A political party qualifies as a major political party if a number of electors equal to at least 5% of the number of registered electors in the state are registered as members of the party no later than the 275th day before the date of a primary election. A political party qualifies as a minor political party if: - an affiliation of electors files with the secretary of state no later than two years after filing a prospective a petition a petition containing the signatures of electors equal to 1 ½ % of the total votes cast for all candidates for governor at the most recent election at which a candidate governor was elected to a full term; - the candidate of an affiliation of electors receives at least 1% of the total votes cast for presidential electors at the last presidential election, or receives 1% of the votes cast for any state offices for which nominations by political parties are permitted at the most recent election for those offices

Petition 

A nonaffiliated presidential candidate may obtain ballot access for the general election by filing with the secretary of state no later than the 70th day before the general election a petition containing the signatures of individual electors equal to not less than 1% of the total votes cast for all candidates for presidential electors at the last general election. The names of the presidential electors must be filed with the petition. Assembly of Electors A nonaffiliated presidential candidate may obtain ballot access for the general election through nomination by an assembly of at least 1,000 electors gathered in one place for no longer than 12 hours. The signatures of the assemble members and a certificate of nomination must be filed with the secretary of state no later than the 70th day before the general election. The names of the presidential electors must be filed with the certificate of nomination.

Write-In 

A voter may write-in the name of a presidential candidate. (Or. Rev. Stat. Ann. §§ 248.006, 248.008, 248.315, 248.355, 249.705, 249.722, 249.735, 249.740, 254.500, 254.548)

Pennsylvania 

Political Party Nomination 

A presidential candidate nominated by a political party may be placed on the general election ballot. The nominee of each political party must certify to the secretary of the commonwealth within thirty days after the national convention of the party the names of the presidential electors. A political party is any party or political body whose candidates at the general election next preceding the primary received in each of at least ten counties in the state no less than 2% of the largest entire vote cast in each of the counties for any elected candidate, and received a total vote in the state equal to at least 2% of the largest entire vote cast in the state for any elected candidate.

Petition 

Presidential candidates of minor parties and political bodies may obtain ballot access for the general election by filing with the secretary of the commonwealth no later than the 2nd Friday subsequent to the primary an affidavit of candidacy, a $200 fee, and nomination papers containing the signatures of qualified electors equal to at least 2% of the largest entire vote cast for any elected candidate in the state at the last preceding election at which statewide candidates were voted for. A minor political party is a party whose statewide registration is less than 15% of the combined statewide registration for all statewide political parties and otherwise meets the criteria of a political party. A political body which is not a political party but has nominated candidates by nomination papers is a political body.

Write-In 

A voter may write-in the name of a presidential candidate on the ballot. (Pa. Consol. Stat. Ann. §§ 2831, 2878, 2872.2, 2873, 2911, 2913, 2914, 3031.12)

Rhode Island 

Political Party Nomination 

A presidential candidate nominated by a political party may be placed on the general election. Political parties must nominate presidential electors at a meeting to be held no later than October 14th . A political party is any political organization that: - nominated a candidate for governor at the next preceding general election for general officers who received at least 5% of the entire vote cast for governor, or; - nominated a candidate for president at the next preceding presidential election who received at least 5% of the entire vote cast in the state for president A political organization may also obtain political party status by filing with the local boards of canvassers no later than August 1st petition forms containing the signatures of registered qualified voters equal to 5% of the entire vote cast in the state for governor or president in the immediately preceding general election.

Petition

An independent presidential candidate or presidential candidates seeking to establish a political party may obtain ballot access by filing nomination papers containing the signatures of 1000 voters. The candidate must file a declaration of candidacy, and, where applicable, a notice of intent to establish a political party, no later than the last day for filing with the secretary of state for congressional and statewide offices. The nomination papers must be filed with local boards of election no later than 60 days before the election.

Write-In 

A voter may write-in the name of a presidential candidate on the ballot. (R.I. Gen. Laws §§ 17-1-2, 17-12-13, 17-12-15, 17-14-7, 17-14-11, 17-14-12, 17-19-31)

South Carolina 

Political Party Nomination 

A presidential candidate nominated by a political party may be placed on the general election. Political parties nominate presidential electors, and must certify names of the candidates for president and vice-president to the state election commission no later than September 10th . A political party is a political party, organization, or association certified by the state election commission. An organization may obtain certification as a political party by filing with the state election commission no later than 6 months prior to the election a petition containing the signatures of 10,000 or more registered electors.

Petition 

A presidential candidate may obtain ballot access for the general election by filing with the state election commission no later than July 15th a petition containing the signatures of at least 5% of qualified registered electors, provided that the petition candidate is not required to furnish more than 10,000 signatures. The names of the presidential electors must be filed with the secretary of state.

Write-In

Write-in votes for president are not allowed. (S.C. Code Ann. §§ 7-7-120, 7-9-10, 7-9-90, 7-11-10, 7-11-70, 7-13-320, 7-13-350, 7-13-351, 7-13-360, 7-19-70)

South Dakota 

Political Party Nomination 

A presidential candidate nominated by a political party may be placed on the general election ballot. The chairperson of the national convention of each political party must certify to the secretary of state immediately following the convention the names of the candidates for president and vice-president. If the national certification is not received, the names must be certified by the state chairperson of the party at the request of the secretary of state. Each political party must certify to the secretary of state the nominees for presidential electors within three days of the state convention, and no later than the 2nd Tuesday in August. A political party is a party whose candidate for governor at the last preceding general election for governor received at least 2 ½ percent of the total votes cast for governor. A new political party may be formed by filing with the secretary of state no later than the last Tuesday of March prior to the date of the primary election a written declaration signed by at least 2 ½ percent of the voters in the state as shown by the total vote cast for governor at the last preceding gubernatorial election.

Petition 

An independent presidential candidate may obtain ballot access for the general election by filing with the secretary of state no later than the first Tuesday in August prior to the election a certificate of nomination containing the number of signatures equal to at least 1% of the total combined vote cast for governor at the last certified gubernatorial election. The candidate must file a declaration of candidacy and certify the name of a candidate for vice-president prior to circulation the nominating petition (S.D. Codified Laws §§ 12-1-3, 12-5-3.16, 12-5-1, 12-5-21, 12-5-22, 12-7-7)

Tennessee

Political Party Nomination

A presidential candidate nominated by a statewide political party or a minor political party may be placed on the general election ballot. Candidates nominated by political parties must be immediately certified to the coordinator of elections. A statewide political party is a political party that had at least 1 candidate for an office to be elected by voters of the entire state in the past 4 years who received a number of votes equal to at least 5% of the total number of votes cast or gubernatorial candidate in the most recent election for governor. A minor political party may obtain ballot access for the general election by filing a petition no later than 90 days prior to the general election with the coordinator of elections containing the signature of registered voters equal to at least 2.5% of the total number of votes cast for gubernatorial candidates in the most recent election for governor.

Petition 

An independent presidential candidate may obtain ballot access by filing with the coordinator of elections no later than the 3rd Thursday in August a petition containing the signatures of 25 or more registered voters for each elector allotted to the state, which totals 275 valid signatures. The candidate must also file the names of the presidential electors and the Vice Presidential nominee.

Write-In 

Write-in candidates must file a notice with the appropriate election official no later than 50 days before the election, and must also submit elector information. (Tenn. Code. Ann. §§ 2-1-104, 2-5-101, 2-7-133, 2-13-201, 2-13-203, § 2-1-104(a)(31)(a), (a)(24), 2-13-107(a), 2-5-101(a)(1), 2-15-101, 2-15- 102, 2-7-133(i); 2012 Tenn. Pub. Acts ch. 55)

Texas 

Political Party Nomination 

A presidential candidate nominated by a political party may be placed on the general election ballot. Political parties must certify the names of the candidates for president and vice-president and the names of the presidential electors before the later of the 70th day before the presidential election, or the first business day after the date of final adjournment of a party’s national nominating convention. A political party that is authorized or required to nominate candidates by primary election is entitled to have its nominee for president placed on the general election ballot. A political party is authorized to nominate by primary if the party’s nominee for governor in the most recent gubernatorial general election received at least 2% of the total number of votes received by all candidates for governor in the election; a political party is required to nominate by primary if that candidate received more than 20% of the vote. A political party that nominates candidates by convention is entitled to have its nominee for president placed on the general election ballot if the party had a nominee for statewide office at the last general election receive a number of votes equal to at least 5% of the total number of voters received by all candidates for that office. A political party that nominates by convention may also qualify to place a presidential candidate on the general election ballot if the party files with the secretary of state no later than the 75th day after precinct conventions a list convention participants indicating that the number of participants equals at least 1% of the total number of votes received by all candidates for governor in the most recent gubernatorial general election. If the number of convention participants is fewer than the number required, the party may qualify for ballot access at the general election by filing a petition with secretary of state containing a number of signatures that when added to the number of convention participants on the list equals at least 1% of the total number of voters received by all candidates for governor in the most recent gubernatorial election.

Petition 

An independent presidential candidate may obtain ballot access for the general election by filing with the secretary of state no later than the 2nd Monday in May an application and a petition containing the number of signatures equal to at least 1% of the total vote received in the state by all candidates for president in the most recent presidential election. The application must include the names of the presidential electors.

Write-In

A write-in candidate for president must file a declaration of write-in candidacy and the names of the presidential electors with the secretary of state no later than the 78th day before the election. (Tex. Elections Code Ann. §§ 146.023, 146.025, 172.002, 181.005, 181.006, 192.003, 192.032, 192.033)

Utah 

Political Party Nomination 

A presidential candidate nominated by a registered political party may be placed on the general election ballot. Each registered political party must certify the names of the candidates for president and vice-president to the lieutenant governor no later than August 31st, or provide written authorization for the lieutenant governor to accept the certification a candidate for president from the national office of the registered party. Each registered party must certify to the lieutenant governor no later than August 31st the names of the presidential electors. To qualify as a registered political party an organization must have participated in the last general election and in at least one of the last two regular general elections received for any of its candidates for any office a total vote equal to 2% or more of the total votes cast for all candidates for the united states house of representative in the same election. An organization may also become a registered political party by filing with the lieutenant governor on or before February 15th of the year in which a regular general election will be held a petition containing the signatures of at least 2,000 registered voters. If a newly registered political party does not hold a national party convention the party may designate the names of its candidate for president and the names of the presidential electors to the lieutenant governor by August 15th .

Petition 

An independent presidential candidate may obtain ballot access for the general election by filing with the lieutenant governor no later than August 15th a certificate of nomination, a nominating petition containing the signatures of 1,000 registered voters, and a $500 fee.

Write-In 

A write-in candidate for president must file a declaration of write-in candidacy with the lieutenant governor no later than 60 days before the election. (Utah Code Ann. §§ 20A-8-101, 20A-8-103, 20A-8-106, 20A-9-202, 20A-9-502, 20A-9-503, 20A-9-601, 20A-13-301)

Vermont

Political Party Nomination 

A presidential candidate nominated by a major political party may be placed on the general election ballot. Major political parties must certify the names of the presidential electors promptly after the electors are nominated at a party convention held no later than the 4th Tuesday in September. The parties must certify to the secretary of state no later than the 47th day before the general election the names of the party’s nominee for president and vice-president. A presidential candidate may be nominated by a minor political party and placed on the general election ballot if the party has town committees organized in at least 10 towns in the state and files a statement of nomination with the secretary of state no later than the second Thursday after the first Monday in June preceding the primary election.

Petition 

An independent presidential candidate may obtain ballot access for the general election by filing with the secretary of state no later than the second Thursday after the first Monday in June preceding the primary election a statement of nomination containing the signatures of 1,000 registered voters and a consent form from each nominee for presidential elector.

Write-In

A voter may write-in the name of a presidential candidate on the ballot. (Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. 17, §§ 2103, 2319, 2356, 2381, 2382, 2385, 2386, 2387, 2402, 2587, 2403, 2716, 2721, 2722)

Virginia 

Political Party Nomination 

A presidential candidate nominated by a political party may be placed on the general election ballot. Each political party must provide to the state board of elections no later than the 74th day before the election the names of the presidential electors selected at the party’s convention and the names of the candidates for president and vice-president. A political party whose national convention is scheduled to be held after the 74th day before the election must file with the state board of election no later than the 74th day before the election the certification of the presidential electors and a certification of the persons expected to be nominated for president at its national convention. The party must certify the names of the candidates for president and vice-president nominated at the national party convention no later than the 60th day before the election. A political party is an organization which received at least 10% of the total vote cast for any statewide office at either of the two preceding statewide general elections.

Petition

A group of qualified voters not constituting a political party may obtain ballot access for a presidential candidate by filing with the state board of elections no later than the 74th day before the election a petition containing the signatures of at least 10,000 qualified voters including signatures of at least 400 qualified voters from each congressional district. The petition must include the names of the candidates for president and vice-president and the names of the presidential electors.

Write-In

A write-in candidate for president must file a declaration of intent with the state board of elections no later than 10 days before the election. (Va. Code Ann. §§ 24.2-101, 24.2-542, 24.2-542.1, 24.2-543, 24.2-614, 24.2-644)

Washington 

Political Party Nomination 

A presidential candidate nominated by a major political party may be placed on the general election ballot. Each major political party must certify to the secretary of state at least 50 days before the election the names of the party’s nominees for presidential electors and the names of the candidates for president and vice-president. A major political party is a political party that had at least one nominee for president, vice president, united state senator, or a statewide office receive at least 5% of the total vote cast at the last preceding state general election.

Petition/Assembly

A presidential candidate that is not nominated by a major political party, including minor party candidates and independent candidates, may be placed on the general election ballot by holding an organized assembly attended by at least one hundred registered voters no later than the second Saturday in May or during the first Saturday in June through the fourth Saturday in July. The candidate must file with the secretary of state no later than one week after the convention is held a petition containing the signatures of at least 1,000 registered voters and certificate of nomination, and must file with the secretary of state no later than ten days after the convention is held a list of presidential electors.

Write-In 

A write-in candidate for president must file a declaration of write-in candidacy with the secretary of state no later than 18 days before the election. (Wash. Rev. Code §§ 29A.04.097, 29A.04.086, 29A.20.111, 29A.20.121, 29A.20.131, 29A.20.141, 29A.20.151, 29A.20.161, 29A.20.181, 29A.24.311, 29A.56.320, 29A.56.360, 29A.80.020)

West Virginia

Political Party Nomination 

A presidential candidate nominated by a political party may be placed on the general election ballot. Political parties nominate the candidates for presidential electors at a state convention in June, July, or August and must certify the names of the electors to the secretary of state within fifteen days. A political party is an organization whose candidate for governor at the last preceding general election received at least 1% of the total number of votes cast for all candidates in the state for that office.

Petition 

A group of citizens that is not a political party (minor party and independent candidates) may obtain ballot access for a presidential candidate by filing with the secretary of state no later than August 1st preceding the general election a certificate of nomination containing the number of signatures of registered voters equal to at least 1% of the entire vote cast for president in the last preceding presidential election. The candidates for president and vice president must also pay a fee equivalent to 1% of the annual salary of the office, provided that the filing fee for president or vice president must not exceed $2500.

Write-In 

A write-in candidate for president must file a certificate of announcement with the secretary of state no later than the close of business on the 49th day before the election. (W. Va. Code §§ 3-1-8, 3-5-8, 3-5-21, 3-5-23, 3-5-24, 3-6-4a)

Wisconsin

Political Party Nomination 

A presidential candidate nominated by a recognized political party may be placed on the general election ballot. Each recognized political party must certify to the general accountability board no later than the first Tuesday in September preceding a presidential election the names of the candidates for president and vice-president. Each recognized party must hold a convention on the first Tuesday in October prior to the presidential election for the purpose of nominating presidential electors and the names of the electors must be immediately certified to the general accountability board. A recognized political party is a political party whose candidate for any statewide office at the last gubernatorial election received at least 1% of the total votes cast for that office, and if the last general election was also a presidential election, the party’s candidate received at least 1% of the total vote cast for that office. A political organization may also become a recognized political party by filing with the general accountability board no later than April 1st in the year of the partisan primary a petition containing the signatures of at least 10,000 electors, including at least 1,000 electors residing in each of at least 3 separate congressional districts.

Petition 

An independent presidential candidate may obtain ballot access for the general election by filing with the general accountability board no later than the first Tuesday in August preceding the partisan primary nomination papers containing between 2,000 and 4,000 signatures. The nomination papers must include the names of the candidates for president and vice-president and the names of the presidential electors.

Write-In 

A write-in candidate for president must file a declaration of candidacy and a list of presidential electors with the general accountability board no later than the 2nd Tuesday preceding the election. (Wis. Stat. §§ 5.02, 5.62, 5.64, 8.16, 8.18, 8.185, 8.20)

Wyoming 

Political Party Nomination

A presidential candidate nominated by a major or minor political party may be placed on the general election ballot. The political parties must nominate presidential electors at a state convention and certify the names of the electors to the secretary of state no later than 30 days following termination of the state convention. A major political party is a political organization whose candidate for united state representative, governor, or secretary of state, received not less than 10% of the total votes cast for that office in the most recent general election. A minor political party is a political organization whose candidate for united states representative, governor, or secretary of state received not less than 2% nor more than 10% of the total votes cast for that office in the most recent general election. A group may form a new political party and obtain ballot access for the general election by filing with the secretary of state no later than June 1st in a general election year a petition containing the signatures of registered electors equal in number to no less than 2% of the total number of votes cast for the office of united state representative in the last general election.

Petition 

An independent presidential candidate may obtain ballot access for the general election by filing with the secretary of state no later than 70 days before a general election a petition containing the signatures of registered electors numbering not less than 2% of the total number of votes cast for united states representative in the last general election. The petition must be accompanied by a $200 fee.

Write-In 

A write-in candidate must file an application of candidacy and the required fee with the appropriate filing officer no later than 2 days after the election. (Wyo. Stat. Ann. §§ 22-1-102, 22-4-118, 22-4-120, 22-4-303, 22-4-306, 22-4-402, 22-5-101, ,22-5-208, 22-5-301, 22-5-304, 22-5-306, 22-5- 307, 22-5-501, 22-19-102)

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All information courtesy National Association of Secretaries of State